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1345.jump-game-iv

Problem

Problem Description

Given an array of integers arr, you are initially positioned at the first index of the array.
In one step you can jump from index i to index:
- i + 1 where: i + 1 < arr.length.
- i - 1 where: i - 1 >= 0.
- j where: arr[i] == arr[j] and i != j.
Return the minimum number of steps to reach the last index of the array.
Notice that you can not jump outside of the array at any time.
Example 1:
Input: arr = [100,-23,-23,404,100,23,23,23,3,404]
Output: 3
Explanation: You need three jumps from index 0 --> 4 --> 3 --> 9. Note that index 9 is the last index of the array.
Example 2:
Input: arr = [7]
Output: 0
Explanation: Start index is the last index. You don't need to jump.
Example 3:
Input: arr = [7,6,9,6,9,6,9,7]
Output: 1
Explanation: You can jump directly from index 0 to index 7 which is last index of the array.
Example 4:
Input: arr = [6,1,9]
Output: 2
Example 5:
Input: arr = [11,22,7,7,7,7,7,7,7,22,13]
Output: 3
Constraints:
- 1 <= arr.length <= 5 * 10^4
- -10^8 <= arr[i] <= 10^8

Solution

This problem can use BFS to check, check each level, if already found in last index, then return, after each level, jumps+1. here level means 3 possible options to jump. so that we can find the min jump steps.
ways to jump from index i: 1. i + 1, if i + 1 < len && i + 1 index not visited before 2. i - 1, if i - 1 >= 0 && i - 1 index not visited before. 3. different indexes which has the same value as value in index i.
Idea is to using Map to store element and corresponding indexes as key, value pair.
Queue to store each level indexes can jumped into from index i:
  • first check curr index i == len - 1 (last index)
    • if yes, terminate process, return jumps.
    • if not, continue
  • add i + 1 if meet requirement, and mark as visited.
  • add i - 1 if meet requirement, and mark as visited
  • add map.get(arr[i]) -- the list of indexes if meet requirement, and mark visited. since it is already visited all indexes, then remove current element from map to avoid unnecessary visit.
  • after each level, jumps+1
For example:
Jump Game IV

Complexity Analysis

  • Time Complexity: O(n)
  • Space Complexity: O(n)
n - n is length of arr

Key Points

  • Group each size k subarray.
  • Calculate avg of subarray of size k, compare with threshold
  • Count increase 1 if meet requirements

Code

Java Code
class Solution {
public int minJumps(int[] arr) {
// already last index
if (arr.length == 1) return 0;
int jumps = 0;
int len = arr.length;
// add all indexes for the same value into map, key as element, value is the list of indexes for the element
Map<Integer, List<Integer>> map = new HashMap<>();
for (int i = 0; i < len; i++) {
map.computerIfAbsent(arr[i], new ArrayList<>()).add(i);
}
// queue to keep index
Queue<Integer> queue = new LinkedList<>();
// start from index 0
queue.offer(0);
// using HashSet to store already visited index, avoid dup visit
Set<Integer> visited = new HashSet<>();
while (!queue.isEmpty()) {
int size = queue.size();
while (size-- > 0) {
int currIdx = queue.poll();
// already last index, return
if (currIdx = len - 1) return jumps;
// check 3 options to jump
// 1) i + 1, if i + 1 not visited, add into visited, and add into queue
if (currIdx + 1 < len && visited.add(currIdx + 1)) {
queue.offer(currIdx + 1);
}
// 2) i - 1, if i - 1 not visited, add into visited and queue
if (currIdx - 1 >= 0 && visited.add(currIdx - 1)) {
queue.offer(currIdx - 1);
}
// 3) the same value with different indexes
if (map.containsKey(arr[currIdx])) {
for (int idx : map.get(arr[currIdx])) {
if (visited.add(idx)) {
queue.offer(idx);
}
}
// already visited, remove from map to avoid dup visit
map.remove(arr[curr]);
}
}
// after checking 3 possible ways, jumps + 1
jumps++;
}
return -1;
}
}